``cmath`` --- Mathematical functions for complex numbers
********************************************************
This module is always available. It provides access to mathematical
functions for complex numbers. The functions in this module accept
integers, floating-point numbers or complex numbers as arguments. They
will also accept any Python object that has either a ``__complex__()``
or a ``__float__()`` method: these methods are used to convert the
object to a complex or floating-point number, respectively, and the
function is then applied to the result of the conversion.
Note: On platforms with hardware and system-level support for signed
zeros, functions involving branch cuts are continuous on *both*
sides of the branch cut: the sign of the zero distinguishes one side
of the branch cut from the other. On platforms that do not support
signed zeros the continuity is as specified below.
Conversions to and from polar coordinates
=========================================
A Python complex number ``z`` is stored internally using *rectangular*
or *Cartesian* coordinates. It is completely determined by its *real
part* ``z.real`` and its *imaginary part* ``z.imag``. In other words:
z == z.real + z.imag*1j
*Polar coordinates* give an alternative way to represent a complex
number. In polar coordinates, a complex number *z* is defined by the
modulus *r* and the phase angle *phi*. The modulus *r* is the distance
from *z* to the origin, while the phase *phi* is the counterclockwise
angle from the positive x-axis to the line segment that joins the
origin to *z*.
The following functions can be used to convert from the native
rectangular coordinates to polar coordinates and back.
cmath.phase(x)
Return the phase of *x* (also known as the *argument* of *x*), as a
float. ``phase(x)`` is equivalent to ``math.atan2(x.imag,
x.real)``. The result lies in the range [-π, π], and the branch
cut for this operation lies along the negative real axis,
continuous from above. On systems with support for signed zeros
(which includes most systems in current use), this means that the
sign of the result is the same as the sign of ``x.imag``, even when
``x.imag`` is zero:
>>> phase(complex(-1.0, 0.0))
3.1415926535897931
>>> phase(complex(-1.0, -0.0))
-3.1415926535897931
New in version 2.6.
Note: The modulus (absolute value) of a complex number *x* can be computed
using the built-in ``abs()`` function. There is no separate
``cmath`` module function for this operation.
cmath.polar(x)
Return the representation of *x* in polar coordinates. Returns a
pair ``(r, phi)`` where *r* is the modulus of *x* and phi is the
phase of *x*. ``polar(x)`` is equivalent to ``(abs(x),
phase(x))``.
New in version 2.6.
cmath.rect(r, phi)
Return the complex number *x* with polar coordinates *r* and *phi*.
Equivalent to ``r * (math.cos(phi) + math.sin(phi)*1j)``.
New in version 2.6.
Power and logarithmic functions
===============================
cmath.exp(x)
Return the exponential value ``e**x``.
cmath.log(x[, base])
Returns the logarithm of *x* to the given *base*. If the *base* is
not specified, returns the natural logarithm of *x*. There is one
branch cut, from 0 along the negative real axis to -∞, continuous
from above.
Changed in version 2.4: *base* argument added.
cmath.log10(x)
Return the base-10 logarithm of *x*. This has the same branch cut
as ``log()``.
cmath.sqrt(x)
Return the square root of *x*. This has the same branch cut as
``log()``.
Trigonometric functions
=======================
cmath.acos(x)
Return the arc cosine of *x*. There are two branch cuts: One
extends right from 1 along the real axis to ∞, continuous from
below. The other extends left from -1 along the real axis to -∞,
continuous from above.
cmath.asin(x)
Return the arc sine of *x*. This has the same branch cuts as
``acos()``.
cmath.atan(x)
Return the arc tangent of *x*. There are two branch cuts: One
extends from ``1j`` along the imaginary axis to ``∞j``, continuous
from the right. The other extends from ``-1j`` along the imaginary
axis to ``-∞j``, continuous from the left.
Changed in version 2.6: direction of continuity of upper cut
reversed
cmath.cos(x)
Return the cosine of *x*.
cmath.sin(x)
Return the sine of *x*.
cmath.tan(x)
Return the tangent of *x*.
Hyperbolic functions
====================
cmath.acosh(x)
Return the hyperbolic arc cosine of *x*. There is one branch cut,
extending left from 1 along the real axis to -∞, continuous from
above.
cmath.asinh(x)
Return the hyperbolic arc sine of *x*. There are two branch cuts:
One extends from ``1j`` along the imaginary axis to ``∞j``,
continuous from the right. The other extends from ``-1j`` along
the imaginary axis to ``-∞j``, continuous from the left.
Changed in version 2.6: branch cuts moved to match those
recommended by the C99 standard
cmath.atanh(x)
Return the hyperbolic arc tangent of *x*. There are two branch
cuts: One extends from ``1`` along the real axis to ``∞``,
continuous from below. The other extends from ``-1`` along the real
axis to ``-∞``, continuous from above.
Changed in version 2.6: direction of continuity of right cut
reversed
cmath.cosh(x)
Return the hyperbolic cosine of *x*.
cmath.sinh(x)
Return the hyperbolic sine of *x*.
cmath.tanh(x)
Return the hyperbolic tangent of *x*.
Classification functions
========================
cmath.isinf(x)
Return *True* if the real or the imaginary part of x is positive or
negative infinity.
New in version 2.6.
cmath.isnan(x)
Return *True* if the real or imaginary part of x is not a number
(NaN).
New in version 2.6.
Constants
=========
cmath.pi
The mathematical constant *π*, as a float.
cmath.e
The mathematical constant *e*, as a float.
Note that the selection of functions is similar, but not identical, to
that in module ``math``. The reason for having two modules is that
some users aren't interested in complex numbers, and perhaps don't
even know what they are. They would rather have ``math.sqrt(-1)``
raise an exception than return a complex number. Also note that the
functions defined in ``cmath`` always return a complex number, even if
the answer can be expressed as a real number (in which case the
complex number has an imaginary part of zero).
A note on branch cuts: They are curves along which the given function
fails to be continuous. They are a necessary feature of many complex
functions. It is assumed that if you need to compute with complex
functions, you will understand about branch cuts. Consult almost any
(not too elementary) book on complex variables for enlightenment. For
information of the proper choice of branch cuts for numerical
purposes, a good reference should be the following:
See also:
Kahan, W: Branch cuts for complex elementary functions; or, Much
ado about nothing's sign bit. In Iserles, A., and Powell, M.
(eds.), The state of the art in numerical analysis. Clarendon Press
(1987) pp165-211.